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Publications > Expedition Publications > Logging Summaries

Logging Summaries

IODP Expedition 324:

Shatsky Rise Formation

Expedition 324 Scientific Party

Introduction
    Figure 1. Map showing the location of sites drilled during Expedition 324.

    IODP Expedition 324 drilled five sites across the Shatsky Rise (Figure 1) to test plume and plate models of ocean plateau formation at Shatsky Rise in the northwest Pacific Ocean.

    The main scientific objectives included determining:

    1. the basement age to constrain the time evolution of the plateau;
    2. geochemical and isotopic compositions of igneous rocks cored from Shatsky Rise;
    3. the source temperatures and degrees of partial melting that produced Shatsky Rise lavas;
    4. the physical volcanology of Shatsky Rise eruptions;
    5. the magnetic polarity of TAMU Massif and paleolatitudes of Shatsky Rise;
    6. paleodepths of Shatsky Rise;
    7. magma evolution and magma chamber processes of Shatsky Rise.


    All sites drilled during Expedition 324 were chosen to cover a large area of Shatsky Rise, sampling all three major edifices (TAMU, ORI, and Shirshov massifs) for studying geochemical, geologic, and age trends. In addition, TAMU Massif has been postulated to be a possible plume head eruption; therefore, it was considered important to sample several sites across the edifice to examine trends. The lithostratigraphic record recovered during the expedition indicates that Shatsky Rise volcanostratigraphy is more complex than initially anticipated, with each hole exhibiting different characteristics and combinations of units.

    The main igneous units encountered were:

    1. pillow lavas displaying typical glassy rinds, chilled zones, internal vesicle distributions, and joint patterns.
    2. pillow-like inflation units displaying glassy rinds or contacts, chilled zones, vesicular tops, and degassed interiors with pipe vesicles;
    3. smaller massive flow units with vesicular tops, homogeneous, coarser grained interiors with pipe vesicles, segregation features, and narrow basal chilled zones;
    4. large massive flow units with narrow, glassy upper contacts, vesicular tops grading down into a vertically extensive nonvesicular degassed interiors with sparse, well-developed pipe vesicles, segregation features, and a coarser crystal groundmass with a narrow basal chilled zone;
    5. pervasively altered volcaniclastic sediments and hyaloclastite.


    Four of the sites were logged with the standard IODP suite of wireline logging tools to measure in situ the physical and lithological properties associated with this large igneous province. Logging operations took place in variable sea conditions ranging from less than 1 m to up 6 m heave. Hole conditions were also highly variable, which is typical of shallow crustal environments. However, despite the environmental difficulties, the results show high quality data in all the sites that were logged. A complete overview of the expedition results and preliminary conclusions is available in the Expedition 324 Preliminary Report.

     

Logging Operations

    Figure 2. Downhole logging data obtained from Site U1346: Shirshov Massif.

    Site U1346: Shirshov Massif


    Site U1346 was situated at the north edge of the Shirshov Massif summit in northern Shatsky Rise (Figure 1), where acoustic basement is nearly flat, implying a subaerially eroded summit platform (Sager et al., 1999). A single hole was drilled (Hole U1346A), penetrating 191.8 m below the seafloor, with 139.2 m of sedimentary cover and 52.6 m of igneous rock.

    Downhole logging data obtained from Hole U1346A included natural and spectral gamma ray, density, photoelectric factor (PEF), and electrical resistivity measurements from three depths of investigation (Figure 2).

    Interpretations of gamma ray and electrical resistivity downhole logs were used to identify 14 logging units in Hole U1346A with three in the section covered by the bottom-hole assembly (BHA), four in the sedimentary sequences in the open hole interval, and seven in the basaltic basement. The sedimentary sequence shows several prominent gamma ray anomalies associated with uranium enrichment. The most prominent anomaly is found at the sediment/basement interface and may be indicative of focused hydrothermal fluid flow. Shallower anomalies recorded through the BHA may represent oceanic anoxic events (OAE's) previously interpreted in this area. Electrical resistivity measurements in the basaltic basement show four distinctive massive zones characterized by higher resistivity values, which may represent individual thick lava flows. Relatively high potassium content in the basement section also suggests a high degree of hydrothermal alteration.

     

    Figure 3. Downhole logging data obtained from Site U1347: TAMU Massif.    
    Figure 4. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) images from Site U1347.

    Site U1347: TAMU Massif

    Site U1347 was situated on the upper flank, east of the summit of TAMU Massif on southern Shatsky Rise (Figure 1). The site location was chosen at a spot where sediments are thin and the "layered basement" signature seen elsewhere on southern Tamu Massif was also thin. Drilling in a single hole (U1347A) penetrated 317.5 m below the seafloor, including a 157.6 m sedimentary section and a 159.9 m igneous section.

    Downhole logging data obtained from Hole U1347A included natural and spectral gamma ray, density, neutron porosity, photoelectric factor, and electrical resistivity measurements from three depths of investigation (Figure 3)

    Formation MicroScanner (FMS) images show zones of distinctive pillow lavas, zones with high fracture density, and intervals that seem to represent massive lava flows (Figure 4).

     

    Figure 5. Downhole logging data obtained from Hole U1348A.
    Figure 6. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) images for Hole U1348.

    Site U1348: TAMU Massif

    Site U1348 was located on the north flank of TAMU Massif (Figure 1). The drilling target was the upper part of a basement high where sediments are thin. A single hole (U1348A) was drilled at the site, with 324.1 m of penetration below the seafloor that included a thick sequence (~120 m stratigraphically) of volcaniclastic sediments underlying shallow water calcareous sandstones, greenish clays, nannofossil ooze, and chert.

    Downhole logging data obtained from Hole U1348A included natural and spectral gamma ray, density, photoelectric factor, compressional-wave velocity, and electrical resistivity measurements from three depths of investigation (Figure 5).

    Interpretations of gamma ray and electrical resistivity downhole logs were used to identify a total of 15 logging units in Hole U1348A with one in the section covered by the BHA, five in the sedimentary sequences in the open hole interval, and nine in the volcaniclastic section. Electrical resistivity measurements show distinctive higher resistivity zones that likely represent less altered intervals, interspersed with low resistivity zones that mark sediment interbeds and more altered sequences. Natural gamma-ray measurements show several intervals of higher readings that indicate interbedded sediments and higher alteration. These intervals also display higher potassium, uranium, and thorium values.

    Formation MicroScanner (FMS) images show zones with distinct horizontal layering, dipping beds, and vesicular or brecciated intervals. Preliminary structural analyses of dipping beds show features striking northeast–southwest and dipping mostly 20-30° to the southeast (Figure 6).

     

    Site U1349: Ori Massif

      Figure 7. Downhole logging data obtained from Hole U1349.
      Figure 8. Formation MicroScanner (FMS) images from Hole U1349.

    Site U1349 was located at the summit of ORI Massif (Figure 1) on a flat-topped basement ridge that seems to have been shaped by sea level erosion. Hole U1349A was the only hole drilled at the site. It penetrated 250.4 m beneath the seafloor, through 165.1 m of sediment and 85.3 m of igneous basement.

    Downhole logging data obtained from Hole U1349A included natural and spectral gamma ray, density, and electrical resistivity measurements from three depths of investigation (Figure 7).

    Interpretations of gamma ray and electrical resistivity downhole logs were used to identify a total of 19 logging units in Hole U1349A with one in the section covered by the BHA, five in the sedimentary sequences in the open hole interval, and thirteen in the basaltic basement section. Electrical resistivity measurements show distinctive higher resistivity zones that likely represent less altered intervals, interspersed with low resistivity zones that mark more altered sequences. Natural gamma-ray measurements show a large peak just below the sediment-basement interface that may indicate a zone of concentrated hydrothermal alteration. This interval also displays very high uranium values and a smaller peak in potassium values.

    Formation MicroScanner (FMS) images show zones with highly fractured intervals, potential veins, and vesicular or brecciated intervals (Figure 8).

       

      Figure 9. Downhole logging data obtained from Hole U1350.
      Figure 10. Gamma ray measurements from Hole U1350.

    Site U1350: Ori Massif

    Logging operations in Hole U1350A consisted of two attempts to deploy one tool string and took place in deteriorating weather with initial ship heave conditions of ~ 2 m, which gradually changed to ~ 4 m peak-to-peak heave and wind gusts of up to 56 knots.

    Deteriorating weather conditions, time constraints, large fluctuations in surface tension, and a failure of the head tension sensor (Figure 9) contributed to aborting logging operations in this site.

    The down log inside the BHA recorded approximately 27.7 meters of the shallow sediments (Figure 10).

    The gamma ray measurements in the shallow sediments show an anomaly from seafloor to approximately 25 m WMSF. The contributions to this anomaly are mainly an increase in thorium and a smaller contribution from uranium.

 

    Helen Evans: Logging Staff Scientist, Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, USA
    Email: Helen Evans

    Gerardo Iturrino: Logging Staff Scientist, Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, USA
    Email: Gerardo Iturrino


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